Church Reforms and the Crusades


Bold:
  1. Simony- When the bishop sold positions in the church.
  2. Gothic- A new style of architecture. The term Gothic comes from a Germanic tribe named the Goths. Unlike the heavy, gloomy Romanesque buildings, Gothic cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching toward heaven.
  3. Urban II- issued a call for what he termed a “holy war,” a Crusade, to gain control of the Holy Land. Over the next 300 years, a number of such Crusades were launched.
  4. Crusade- A medieval military expedition.
  5. Saladin- A Kurdish warrior and Muslim leader.
  6. Richard the Lion-Hearted- Richard was left to lead the Crusaders in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin. Both Richard and Saladin were brilliant warriors. After many battles, the two agreed to a truce in 1192.
  7. Reconquista- A long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims out of Spain. By the late 1400s, the Muslims held only the tiny kingdom of Granada. In 1492, Granada finally fell to the Christian army of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Spanish monarchs.
  8. Inquisition- A court held by the Church to suppress heresy. Heretics were people whose religious beliefs differed from the teachings of the Church.
  9. Curia- The pope’s group of advisers. The Curia also acted as a court. It developed canon law (the law of the Church) on matters such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance
  10. Romanesque Style- The churches had round arches and a heavy roof held up by thick walls and pillars. The thick walls had tiny windows that let in little light.





Key People:
  1. Richard the Lion-Hearted: Richard was noted for his good looks, charm, courage, grace—and ruthlessness. When he heard that Jerusalem had fallen to the Muslims, he was filled with religious zeal. He joined the Third Crusade, leaving others to rule England in his place.Richard mounted a siege on the city of Acre. Saladin’s army was in the hills overlooking the city, but it was not strong enough to defeat the Crusaders. When finally the city fell, Richard had the Muslim survivors—some 3,000 men, women, and children—slaughtered. The Muslim army watched helplessly from the hills.
  2. Saladin: Saladin was the most famous Muslim leader of the 1100s. His own people considered him a most devout man. Even the Christians regarded him as honest and brave.
  3. Pope Urban II: He issued a call for what he termed a “holy war,” a Crusade, to gain control of the Holy Land. Over the next 300 years, a number of such Crusades were launched.
  4. Dominic: A Spanish priest, founded the Dominicans, one of the earliest orders of friars. Because Dominic emphasized the importance of study, many Dominicans were scholars.
  5. Francis of Assisi: An Italian, founded another order of friars, the Franciscans.
  6. Clare: founded the Franciscan order for women. It was known as the Poor Clares. In Germany, Hildegard of Bingen, a mystic and musician, founded a Benedictine convent in 1147
  7. Alexius Comnenus: Sent an appeal to Robert, Count of Flanders. The emperor asked for help against the Muslim Turks.
  8. Stephen of Cloyes: Lead a Children's Crusade.
  9. Nicholas of Cologne: Gathered about 20,000 children and young adults. They began marching toward Rome. Thousands died in the cold and treach- erous crossing of the Alps. Those who survived the trip to Italy finally did meet the pope. Told the remaining children to go home and return when they were older.



Ideas/Events:

THE AGE OF FAITH:
  • Monasteries led the spiritual revival. The monastery founded at Cluny in France in 910 was especially important
  • Three Main issues:
  • • Many village priests married and had families. Such marriages were against Church rulings.
    • Bishops sold positions in the Church, a practice called simony (SY•muh•nee).
    • Using the practice of lay investiture, kings appointed church bishops. Church reformers believed the Church alone should appoint bishops.
  • Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII enforced Church laws against simony and the marriage of priests. The popes who followed Leo and Gregory reorganized the Church to continue the policy of reform.
  • The pope’s group of advisers was called the papal Curia. The Curia also acted as a court. It developed canon law (the law of the Church) on matters such as marriage, divorce, and inheritance.
  • In the early 1200s, wandering friars traveled from place to place preaching and spreading the Church’s ideas. Like monks, friars took vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience.
  • Dominic, a Spanish priest, founded the Dominicans, one of the earliest orders of friars. Because Dominic emphasized the importance of study, many Dominicans were scholars.
  • Francis of Assisi, an Italian, founded another order of friars, the Franciscans. Francis treated all creatures, including animals, as if they were his spiritual brothers and sisters.
  • Women played an important role in the spiritual revival. Women joined the Dominicans, Benedictines, and Franciscans.
  • In 1212, a woman named Clare and her friend Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscan order for women. It was known as the Poor Clares. In Germany, Hildegard of Bingen, a mystic and musician, founded a Benedictine convent in 1147.

CATHEDRALS-CITIES OF GOD:
  • Larger churches called cathedrals were built in city areas. The cathedral was viewed as the representation of the City of God. As such, it was decorated with all the richness that Christians could offer.
  • Gothic cathedrals were built in many towns of France. In Paris, the vaulted ceiling of the Cathedral of Notre Dame (NOH•truh DAHM) eventually rose to more than 100 feet.

THE CRUSADES:
  • The Age of Faith also inspired wars of conquest. In 1093, the Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus sent an appeal to Robert, Count of Flanders. The emperor asked for help against the Muslim Turks.
  • The Crusades had economic, social, and political goals as well as religious motives. Muslims controlled Palestine (the Holy Land) and threatened Constantinople. The Byzantine emperor in Constantinople appealed to Christians to stop Muslim attacks.
  • In addition, kings and the Church both saw the Crusades as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome knights who fought each other.
  • In the later Crusades, merchants profited by making cash loans to finance the journey. They also leased their ships for a hefty fee to transport armies over the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, the merchants of Pisa, Genoa, and Venice hoped to win control of key trade routes to India, Southeast Asia, and China from Muslim traders.
  • According to the pope, those who died on Crusade were assured of a place in heaven.
  • By early 1097, three armies of knights and people of all classes had gathered outside Constantinople. Most of the Crusaders were French, but Bohemians, Germans, Englishmen, Scots, Italians, and Spaniards came as well. The Crusaders were ill-prepared for war in this First Crusade.
  • All in all, the Crusaders had won a narrow strip of land. It stretched about 650 miles from Edessa in the north to Jerusalem in the south. Four feudal Crusader states were carved out of this territory, each ruled by a European noble.
  • The Third Crusade to recapture Jerusalem was led by three of Europe’s most powerful monarchs.
  • They were Philip II (Augustus) of France, German emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), and the English king, Richard the Lion-Hearted. Philip argued with Richard and went home. Barbarossa drowned on the journey. So, Richard was left to lead the Crusaders in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin. Both Richard and Saladin were brilliant warriors. After many battles, the two agreed to a truce in 1192.

THE CRUSADING SPIRIT DWINDLES:
  • In 1204, the Fourth Crusade to capture Jerusalem failed. The knights did not reach the Holy Land. Instead, they ended up looting the city of Constantinople.
  • The Children’s Crusade took place in 1212. In two different movements, thousands of children set out to conquer Jerusalem. One group in France was led by 12-year-old Stephen of Cloyes. An estimated 30,000 children under 18 joined him.
  • In Germany, Nicholas of Cologne gathered about 20,000 children and young adults. They began marching toward Rome. Thousands died in the cold and treach- erous crossing of the Alps. Those who survived the trip to Italy finally did meet the pope.
  • By the late 1400s, the Muslims held only the tiny kingdom of Granada. In 1492, Granada finally fell to the Christian army of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Spanish monarchs.
  • The inquisitors suspected these Jewish and Muslim converts of heresy. A person suspected of heresy might be questioned for weeks and even tortured.

THE EFFECTS OF THE CRUSADES:
  • European merchants who lived and traded in the Crusader states expanded trade between Europe and Southwest Asia. The goods imported from Southwest Asia included spices, fruits, and cloth.
  • The Crusades weakened the feudal nobility and increased the power of kings. Thousands of knights and other participants lost their lives and fortunes. The fall of Constantinople weakened the Byzantine Empire.
  • The Crusades grew out of religious fervor, feudalism, and chivalry, which came together with explosive energy. This same energy led to the growth of trade, towns, and universities in medieval Europe.